1) Chapman’s Orthopaedic Surgery, 3rd Edition© 2001 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia, PA USA
2) Gubston FH. Polycentric Knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1971 1; 53-B:272
3) Kellegren JH, Lawrence JS, Bier F. Genetic Factors in Generalized Osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 1963;22:237.
4) Doherty M, Watt I, Dieppe P. Influence of Primary Generalized Osteoarthritis on the Development of Secondary Osteoarthritis. Lancet 1983;11:8.
5) Schumacher HR Jr, Klippel JH, Koopman WJ, eds. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, 10th ed. Atlanta: Arthritis Foundation, 1993.
6) Salter RB. The biologic Concept of Continuous Passive Motion of Synovial Joints. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. 1989 May (242) : 12-25
7) Reddi AH. Role of Subchondral Bone Matrix Factors in the Repair of Articular Cartilage. In: Verbruggen G, Veys EM, eds. Degenerative Joints. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1985:271.
8) Buckwalter JA, Woo SL, Goldberg VM, Hadley EC, Booth F, Oegema TR, Eyre DR. Soft-tissue aging and musculoskeletal function. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1993;75:1533-48.
9) Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ. Articular cartilage I. Tissue design andchondrocyte-matrix interactions. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79:600-11.
10) Buckwalter JA, Roughley PJ, Rosenberg LC. Age-related changes in cartilageproteoglycans: quantitative electron microscopic studies. Microsc Res Tech. 1994;28:398-408.
11) Buckwalter JA, Mow VC, Hunziker EB. Concepts of cartilage repair in osteoarthritis. In: Moskowitz RW, Goldberg VM, Howell DS, Altman R, Buckwalter JA, editors. Osteoarthritis: diagnosis and medical/surgical management. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2001. p 101-14.
12) Kumai T, Takakura Y, Higashiyama I, Tamai S. Arthroscopic drilling for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81:1229-35.
13) Martin JA, Buckwalter JA. The Role of Chondrocyte Senescence in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis and in Limiting Cartilage Repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A Suppl 2:106-110.
14) Bonassar LJ, Grodzinsky AJ, Frank EH, Davila SG, Bhaktav NR, Trippel SB. The effect of dynamic compression on the response of articular cartilage to insulin-like growth factor-I. J Orthop Res. 2001 Jan;19(1):11-7
15) Hochberg MC. Adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: current epidemiological concepts. Epidemiol Rev 1981:3; 27-44.
16) Arnett et al ARTH RHEUM 30:S17, 1987
17) Pinals RS, et.al.: Arthritis Rheum 24:1308, 1981
18) Steinbrocker O, et.al.: JAMA 140:659, 1949
19) JL Decker et al. Ann Internal Medicine. Vol 101. 1984. p 810-824.
20) Darryl D. D’Lima, Sanshiro Hashimoto, Peter C. Chen, Martin K. Lotz, and Clifford W. Colwell, Jr. Cartilage Injury Induces Chondrocyte Apoptosis J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001 83(Supp 2): S19-S21
21) Tew SR, Kwan AP, Hann A, Thompson BM, Archer CW. The reactions of articular cartilage to experimental wounding: role of apoptosis. Arthritis Rheum, 2000;41: 215-25.
22) Loening AM, James IE, Levenston ME, Badger AM, Frank EH, Kurz B, Nuttall ME, Hung HH, Blake SM, Grodzinsky AJ, Lark MW. Injurious mechanical compression of bovine articular cartilage induces chondrocyte apoptosis. Arch Biochem Biophys, 2000;381: 205-12.
23) D’Lima DD, Hashimoto S, Chen PC, Lotz MK, Colwell CW Jr. In vitro and in vivo models of cartilage injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2001;83(Suppl 2): 22-24.
24) D’Lima DD, Hashimoto S, Chen PC, Lotz MK, Colwell CW Jr. Prevention of chondrocyte apoptosis J Bone Joint Surg Am200183(Suppl 2)25-26. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 200183(Suppl 2)25-26;83(Suppl 2): 25-26.
25) Chun-Do Oh and Jang-Soo Chun Signaling Mechanisms Leading to the Regulation of Differentiation and Apoptosis of Articular Chondrocytes by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 278, Issue 38, 36563-36571, September 19, 2003
26) Y Shelton, E Mortimer, “Orthopaedic problems in the pediatric patient,” in Orthopaedics in Primary Care, third ed, G G Steinberg, C M Adkins, D T Baran, eds (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 1999) 381-411.
27) NIH consensus conference: Total hip replacement. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Total Hip Replacement. JAMA. 1995 Jun 28;273(24):1950-6.
28) Engh Ca, Bobyn JD, Glassman AH Porous-coated hip replacement: Factors governing ingrowth, stress shielding, and clinical results. J Bone Joint Surg 69B: 45, 1987.
29) RB Bourne et al. Pain in the thigh following total hip replacement with a porous coated anatomic prosthesis for osteoarthritis. JBJS Vol 76-A. 1994. p 1464-1470.
30) Engh-CA; Bobyn-JD. The influence of stem size and extent of porous coating on femoral bone resorption after primary cementless hip arthroplasty. Clin-Orthop. 1988 Jun(231): 7-28
31) Bourne RB, Mehin R. The dislocating hip: what to do, what to do. J Arthroplasty. 2004 Jun;19(4 Suppl 1):111-4.
32) Charnley J. Surgery of the hip-joint. Present and future developments. British Medical Journal, 1960.
33) Muratoglu OK, Bragdon CR, O’Connor D, Perinchief RS, Estok DM 2nd, Jasty M, Harris WH. Larger diameter femoral heads used in conjunction with a highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: a new concept. Ar throplasty. 2001 Dec;16(8 Suppl 1):24-30.
34) Kreder HJ, Deyo RA, Koepsell T, et al. Relationship between the volume of total hip replacements performed by providers and the rates of postoperative complications in the state of Washington. J Bone Joint Surg 1997;79-A:485-494.
35) Gunston FH. Polycentric knee arthroplasty. Prosthetic simulation of normal knee movement.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1971 May;53(2):272-7
36) Future Demand for Orthopedic Skills to Soar.AAOS Bull 1999;47:14.
37) Vastag B. Knee replacement underused, says panel: useful option when nonsurgical therapies fail.
JAMA. 2004 Jan 28;291(4):413-4.
38) Friederichs MG, Mariani EM, Bourne MH. Perioperative blood salvage as an alternative to predonating blood for primary total knee and hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2002 Apr;17(3):298-303.
39) Khaw FM, Kirk LM, Morris RW, Gregg PJ. A randomised, controlled trial of cemented versus cementless press-fit condylar total knee replacement. Ten-year survival analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002 Jul;84 (5):658-66.
40) Duffy GP, Berry DJ, Rand JA. Cement versus cementless fixation in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 1998 Nov;(356):66-72.
41) Barrack RL, Paprosky W, Butler RA, Palafox A, Szuszczewicz E, Myers L. Patients’ perception of pain after total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2000; 15:590-596.
42) Ivarsson I, Myrnerts R, Tkaczuk H. Long-term follow-up of patients with geomedic prosthesis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1986;105:353-358.
43) Sharkey PF, Hozack WJ, Rothman RH, et al. Why are total knee arthroplasties failing today? Clin Orthop. 2002;404:7-13.
44) Functional comparison of posterior cruciate retention and substitution knee replacement. Udomkiat P, Meng BJ, Dorr LD, Wan Z. Clin Orthop 2000 Sep;(378):192-201
45) Hamilton JV, Schmidt MB, Greer KW. Improved wear of UHMWPE using a vacuum sterilization process. Program and abstracts of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society; February 18-22; Atlanta, Georgia. 1996
46) Rush JH, Vidovich JD, Johnson MA. Arterial complications of total knee replacement. The Australian experience. JBJS-Br 1987 May 69(3): 400-402.
47) Ellingsen DE, Rand JA – Intramedullary arthrodesis of the knee after failed total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1994 Jun;76(6):870-7
48) Gartsman GM. Shoulder Arthroplasty with or without Resurfacing of the Glenoid in Patients Who Have Osteoarthritis. JBJS Vol 82-A. No 1. Jan 2000. p 26.